Learn From a Native Speaker - The Czech Language Basics (7)

31. července 2013 v 12:09 | Author |  Learn From a Native Speaker
In the previous lesson we were talking about possessive pronouns a little bit so now we are going to explain them more and to practice.

Possessive pronouns are guite important for you when you want to express that something´s yours, something isn´t… and unfortunately, in Czech it´s slightly more complicated than in English. We´ve already talked about it - you need to realize if the object of possession is plural or singular and, of course, which of the three genders it belongs to. All this before you use the right form of the pronoun, otherwise you can make bigger or smaller mistakes. Firstly we´ll start with the pronoun for the first person.

How would we say it´s mine? Exactly like it is in English. We´ve already learnt the word for it - to. Now try to remember, what´s the form of the verb být in the third person, singular. Got it? Well, now you´ve got two thirds. But the most important part is coming - the pronoun. In this case the final sentence would be this:

To je moje. - It´s mine.

Moje is used with the neuter gender in singular and in plural, as well. If you want to write poems, you can use in singular and in plural, too, but nobody use this (mainly the second singular form) in common conversation (but it depends on the gender, situation etc., sometimes it´s not so useless). Look at this:

To(to/hle) auto je moje. - This car is mine.
To(to/hle) auto je mé.
Ta(to/hle) auta jsou moje. - These car are mine.
Ta(to/hle) auta jsou má.

Notice that the word auto (car) is changing to plural form auta in the last two sentences. It´s the same type of conjugating as with město (city), těsto (dough), gesto (gesture)… As you can see, all these words have the same ending. If you were looking for rhymes, you would find even more words, but not each one would belong to this group, because they could be already conjugated somehow. This is just as a matter of interest, we will go through this much more later.
If you want a form of the word moje which would correspond with the masculine gender, you will say můj.

To(to/hle) je můj dům. - This is my house.

or you can say

Tenhle dům je můj. - This house is mine.

The pronoun is not changing like the English one (at least one good news).

Tohle je můj muž. - This is my husband.

Instead of muž you can say manžel, as well.
In the plural there is one more complication. You must make differences between animate and inanimate nouns. Let´s see some examples:

Moje domy jsou velké. - My houses are big.
Moji synové jsou velcí. - My sons are big/old.

Again, there are other variants - for inanimate nouns in plural and for animate ones.

Finally for the feminine nouns the pronoun is moje. Yes, it´s the same like for the neuter gender, but the second variant is not but .

To(to/hle) je moje žena. - This is my wife.

Here it´s possible to replace žena with manželka. Žena in it´s primary meaning is woman. So you can also say:
Ta(to/hle) žena je moje manželka. - This woman is my wife.

To(to/hle) je moje dcera. - This is my daughter.

In the plural we are using moje, too, and the second variant is .

To(to/hle) jsou moje dcery. - These are my daughters.

So… this is it. We´ve told as much as possible about the possessive pronoun for the first singular person. But you mustn´t think it´s all! These are just forms for the first case - for the nominative. There are five other waiting… (we are not using possessive pronouns in vocative case)

I think you´ve got enough for learning, but I´ll tell you something more. If you want to say your, you only have to change the "m" at the start of every pronoun to "tv". Now you´ve got all the forms for the second person, singular ;) (and there are next persons waiting, too, so look forward it ;))

For a better understanding here´s a revision.

I know it can seem hard, complicated… but in daily life it really works and it´s needed. Try it. Read some newspapers and look for these pronouns. When you find them, write them down with the words they belong to. Train as much as possible. Make sentences with moje, tvoje and the words we´ve learnt. You can also try to make the plural forms, if you want, and then write it here to let me check it.

There are some words from this lesson (and the previous, as well) and other ones you can use when practicing:

taška = a bag (feminine)
město = a city (neuter)
pes = a dog (animate masculine)
bunda = a jacket (feminine)
jídlo = food (neuter)
místo = a place (neuter)
učitel = a teacher (animate masculine)
práce = work (as a noun; feminine)
žena = a woman; wife (feminine)
manželka = wife (feminine)
manžel = husband (animate masculine)
muž = a man; husband (animate masculine)
syn = son (animate masculine)
dcera = daughter (feminine)
hrad = a castle (inanimate masculine)

At the very end there are some example sentences which you can use.

To je tvoje dcera?
Is this your daughter?

Můj dům, můj hrad.
My house, my castle.

Kde je tvůj manžel?
Where is your husband?

Kde je moje taška?
Where is my bag?

Můj pes je chytrý. A tvůj?
My dog is clever. And yours?

Tvoje město je velké, ale moje ne(ní).
Your city is big, but mine is not.
(just one note - this Czech sentence when added the "ní" can also mean Your city is big, but it´s not mine.)

Tvůj syn je už hodně vysoký.
Your son is already very high.

Hope this lesson was more helpful than exhausting :) See you next time. And remember - keep talking…

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