Learn From a Native Speaker - The Czech Language Basics (5)

30. června 2013 v 16:50 | Author |  Learn From a Native Speaker
As soon as we´ve spoken about some verbs we should learn some tenses. For being optimistic, we´ll learn the future tense first :-)

There are two ways how to make a sentence in future tense. One of them is this - to make a new, special form of the verb (and simply use the outcoming word). The second (and maybe easier) is to let the verb in the infinitive form and to add the verb být in the future tense before it. So you surely take my point it´s important to learn the future forms of být first.

já budu
my budeme
ty budeš
vy budete
on bude
oni budou
ona bude
ony budou
ono bude
ona budou

Some examples:
Budu jíst. I will eat.
Budu pryč. I´ll be gone.
Budu na tebe čekat. I´ll wait for you.

Remember when I was talking about the osoba, číslo and čas? That we don´t have to worry about the other things in the long list? I´m sorry to dissapoint you, but if you want to manage to know the future tense forms really properly and not just by heart, there is something more you have to learn about - vid slovesa, the verbal aspect. It´s important, because it tells us whether use the first or the second method. For natives it´s something we don´t think about at all, it´s automatical (so much that I must read about this in an article to realize that there really ARE connections between the verbal aspect and the conjugation…). For new learners it could be very hard so I´m sorry I haven´t realized this a while ago. I thought the tenses would be same to same in difficulty, that´s why I didn´t think about this sooner. But I believe you can do it with a little more practicing and concentration :-)

So… the verbal aspect. It´s something unusual for English because it´s not used there at all. Contrarily in Czech, like I´ve just said, it´s the most important thing before you decide how to make it sound naturely. If you mistake one method for the other, a native speaker would understand you, but it wouldn´t sound very nice… keep this in mind.
We distinguish two verbal aspects (= two methods of making the future form), perfective and imperfetive. In Czech it´s dokonavý and nedokonavý vid (these words are pretty much technical so you don´t have to remeber them at all, it´s just as a matter of interest, again).

First we are going to learn something about the perfective verbal aspect. Perfective verbs are used to express usually the end of some process. We´ve been doing it till it´s done. Dělali jsme to, až jsme to udělali (or dodělali). This is the first method in which we are just changing the verb and not adding anything. The verb doesn´t have a present form (or, better said, it doesn´t have a future form beacuse it´s just the present form). Every person has a special form of the verb.

Then there is the imperfective aspect. This is the second method where we are adding verb být in future tense (the forms in the chart on top) and the verb itself remains in the infinitive form. For the different persons is changing only the verb být. So far every verb we´ve learnt is imperfective (expect of the být, of course - it has its own forms everytime). Do you want to try to change it into the future tense?

CHTÍT - to want

já budu chtítmy budeme chtít
ty budeš chtítvy budete chtít
on/ona/ono bude chtítoni/ony/ona budou chtít

POTŘEBOVAT - to need

já budu potřebovatmy budeme potřebovat
ty budeš potřebovatvy budete potřebovat
on/ona/ono bude potřebovatoni/ony/ona budou potřebovat

ŽÍT - to live

já budu žítmy budeme žít
ty budeš žítvy budete žít
on/ona/ono bude žítoni/ony/ona budou žít

BYDLET - to live ("to house")

já budu bydletmy budeme bydlet
ty budeš bydletvy budete bydlet
on/ona/ono bude bydletoni/ony/ona budou bydlet

Were you right? I think now it could be easier for you to imagine making the future tense this way for the other verbs. It´s just round and round… over and over again. This makes the practicing part much easier.

Of course there are some exceptions, irregularities. In both methods. But now let´s learn some of the perfective verbs, okay?

JÍT - to go

já půjdumy půjdeme
ty půjdešvy půjdete
on/ona/ono půjdeoni/ony/ona půjdou

If we want to make a present tense of this verb (which we haven´t, yet), we simply eliminate the prefix -. And if we want to make a future tense from the present, we just put the prefix back. So "I go" - já jdu.

ZAMILOVAT SE (DO) - to fall in love (with)

já se zamilujumy se zamilujeme
ty se zamiluješvy se zamilujete
on/ona/ono se zamilujeoni/ony/ona se zamilují

Here´s the same situation as with the verb potřebovat in present tense. Perfectly standard should be já se zamiluji, but both are correct, broadly speaking.

Try to translate this verb forms into Czech/English and to change them into the future/present tense (we are in a stage where you still can look back ;)). To make it more difficult I haven´t written the pronouns. Good luck :)

she lives
bude bydlet (cctp)
they live
you will fall in love (plural)
bude potřebovat (cctp)
budou bydlet (cctp)
you will want
it will be
budeme potřebovat
zamiluje se (cctp)

cctp = can choose the person :)

If you want you can write what you´ve done in the comments to let me check it. Or, as usual, you can ask anything ;)

Buď první, kdo ohodnotí tento článek.

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